Each email that is sent via HubSpot generates some number of events, detailing its lifecycle and how the recipient interacts with its content. An event is uniquely identified by its EventId, which is comprised of the following properties:
|id||string||A randomly-generated ID for this event.|
|created||64-bit integer||The timestamp (in milliseconds since epoch) when this event was created.|
These properties can be used to lookup a specific event via this endpoint.
Further, all but one event type (UNBOUNCE) have the following properties:
|type||string (enumeration)||The type of event. See below for more information on event types.|
|recipient||string||The email address of the recipient of the email message.|
|portalId||32-bit integer||An ID referencing the HubSpot Portal which sent the email message. This will correspond to your portal.|
|appId||32-bit integer||An ID referencing the HubSpot Application which sent the email message.|
|appName||string||The name of the HubSpot Application which sent the email message. Note that this is a derived value, and may be modified at any time.|
|emailCampaignId||64-bit integer||An ID referencing the email campaign which the email message is part of. Additional information on the email campaign can be found via this endpoint.|
Events can be looked up in bulk using either 'recipient' or both 'appId' and 'campaignId', and optionally any combination of the above properties, via this endpoint.
The following additional properties are also available for all event types (including UNBOUNCE):
|hmid||string||A randomly-generated ID which corresponds to the header 'X-HubSpot-MID' in the email message.|
|sentBy||JSON||The EventId which uniquely identifies the email message's SENT event. If not applicable, this property is omitted.|
|obsoletedBy||JSON||The EventId which uniquely identifies the follow-on event which makes this current event obsolete. If not applicable, this property is omitted.|
|causedBy||JSON||The EventId which uniquely identifies the event which directly caused this event. If not applicable, this property is omitted.|
The event reference properties -- 'sentBy', 'obsoletedBy', and 'causedBy' -- are discussed in detail later in this document.
There are 12 different event types which can be generated by HubSpot's Email API during the lifecycle of an email message. They are broadly grouped into the categories: Submission, Delivery, User Engagement, and User Status. The event types, the event categories, and their relationships are diagrammed below.
|SENT||The message was sent to and received by our delivery provider, which has queued it for further handling.|
|DROPPED||The message was rejected, either by HubSpot or by our delivery provider, and no attempt will be made to deliver the message.|
|PROCESSED||The message has been received by our delivery provider, which has indicated it will attempt to deliver the message to the recipient's email server.|
|DELIVERED||The recipient's email server has accepted the message and the message has been successfully delivered to the recipient.|
|DEFERRED||The recipient’s email server has temporarily rejected message, and subsequent attempts will be made to deliver the message. This is also referred to as a soft bounce.|
|BOUNCE||The recipient's email server could not or would not accept the message, and no further attempts will be made to deliver the message. This is also referred to as a hard bounce.|
|OPEN||The recipient opened the message.|
|CLICK||The recipient clicked on a link within the message.|
|The recipient printed the message.|
|FORWARD||The recipient forwarded the message.|
|STATUSCHANGE||The recipient changed her email subscriptions in some way.|
|SPAMREPORT||The recipient flagged the message as spam.|
When an email message is created and sent by HubSpot on behalf of a customer, we first verify the recipient is eligible to receive it. If not, we reject the message, triggering the creation of a DROPPED event. Otherwise, we submit it to our delivery provider for further handling, triggering a SENT event. An email message will almost always have exactly one submission event associated with it; for example, there will never be multiple SENT events for a message.
We make every effort to reject messages before passing them along to our delivery provider. However, sometimes our delivery provider will decide to reject a message even after we have verified its eligibility. This follow-on rejection results in a DROPPED event being created, in addition to the previously-created SENT event.
Submission events all share the following properties:
|subject||string||The subject line of the email message.|
|from||string||The 'from' field of the email message.|
|replyTo||list of strings||The 'reply-to' field of the email message.|
|cc||list of strings||The 'cc' field of the email message.|
|bcc||list of strings||The 'bcc' field of the email message.|
Additionally, DROPPED events have the following properties:
|dropReason||string (enumeration)||The reason why the email message was dropped. See below for the possible values.|
|dropMessage||string||The raw message describing why the email message was dropped. This will usually provide additional details beyond 'dropReason'.|
|PREVIOUSLY_BOUNCED||A previous message to the recipient resulted in a bounce.|
|PREVIOUS_SPAM||A previous message to the recipient was flagged as spam.|
|PREVIOUSLY_UNSUBSCRIBED_MESSAGE||The recipient previously unsubscribed from this subscription.|
|PREVIOUSLY_UNSUBSCRIBED_PORTAL||The recipient previously unsubscribed from all subscriptions from the portal.|
|INVALID_TO_ADDRESS||The email address in the 'to' field failed validation.|
|INVALID_FROM_ADDRESS||The email address in the 'from' field failed validation.|
|BLOCKED_DOMAIN||The recipient's domain was blocked.|
|BLOCKED_ADDRESS||The recipient explicitly requested to not receive any emails via HubSpot.|
|EMAIL_UNCONFIRMED||Double opt-in was enabled and the recipient had not yet confirmed his/her subscription.|
|CAMPAIGN_CANCELLED||The associated email campaign was cancelled.|
|MTA_IGNORE||Our delivery provider decided to drop the message. Any additional details will be included in 'dropMessage'.|
|PORTAL_OVER_LIMIT||Your portal had gone over its monthly limit for email sends.|
|PORTAL_SUSPENDED||Your portal was suspended for non-compliance or deliverability issues.|
Once our delivery provider has accepted an email message, we create a PROCESSED event. At this point, the delivery provider has queued the message for delivery. If everything goes smoothly, the delivery provider will dequeue the message and successfully deliver it to the recipient's email server, and we generate a DELIVERED event.
Occasionally, things don't go smoothly, and one of two things happen: delivery is deferred because of a temporary rejection, or delivery fails and will not be retried.
In the first case, the message could not be delivered to the recipient's email server for some non-fatal, usually transient reason, such as a spurious time-out. The delivery provider will re-queue the message for later delivery, and we create a DEFERRED event. A message can be deferred multiple times before it completes the delivery phase, with a new event created on each attempt. (Note that DEFERRED is also referred to as a soft bounce in HubSpot; the terms are used interchangeably.)
If delivery fails, no further attempts will be made to deliver the message, and we create a BOUNCE event. This can occur for a variety of reasons, such as the recipient being unknown by the email server. (Note that BOUNCE is also referred to as a hard bounce in HubSpot; the terms are used interchangeably.)
The specific delivery event types have the following properties:
|response||string||The full response from the recipient's email server.|
|smtpId||string||An ID attached to the message by HubSpot.|
|response||string||The full response from the recipient's email server.|
|attempt||32-bit integer||The delivery attempt number.|
|category||string (enumeration)||The best-guess of the type of bounce encountered. If an appropriate category could not be determined, this property is omitted. See below for the possible values. Note that this is a derived value, and may be modified at any time to improve the accuracy of classification.|
|response||string||The full response from the recipient's email server.|
|status||string||The status code returned from the recipient's email server.|
|UNKNOWN_USER||The recipient did not exist.|
|MAILBOX_FULL||The recipient's mailbox was full and could not receive any messages.|
|CONTENT||The recipient's filters identified content in the body of the email that was suspicious or spammy.|
|SPAM||The message was flagged as spam.|
|POLICY||The message was flagged as spam.|
|GREYLISTING||The email server requires a longer history of email activity from the sender.|
|MAILBOX_MISCONFIGURATION||A mailbox misconfiguration was detected.|
|ISP_MISCONFIGURATION||An ISP misconfiguration was detected.|
|DOMAIN_REPUTATION||The sending domain has a poor reputation or a reputation that doesn't meet the standards of the recipient server.|
|DMARC||The sender’s domain does not pass a DMARC check. Please review your SPF and DMARC policies.|
|SENDING_DOMAIN_MISCONFIGURATION||Domain authentication failed due to a policy on the recipient's end.|
|TIMEOUT||The receiving email server timed out and is no longer accepting email.|
|THROTTLED||The recipient's email server was throttling messages.|
|UNCATEGORIZED||An uncategorized error was detected.|
|IP_REPUTATION||The message originated from a suspicious (or previously unknown) IP address.|
|DNS_FAILURE||The recipient’s domain name server settings were misconfigured at the time the email was sent.|
|TEMPORARY_PROBLEM||Some temporary problem occurred.|
Once an email message reaches its recipient, there are four different event types which can occur: OPEN, CLICK, PRINT, and FORWARD. These represent the recipient's interaction with the message and its content, and can occur multiple times. For example, each time any URL is clicked, a new CLICK event is created, even if that URL has previously been clicked and generated such an event.
User engagement events all share the following properties:
|ipAddress||string||The IP address where the event originated.|
|userAgent||string||The user agent responsible for the event, e.g. “Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_8_4) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/28.0.1500.95 Safari/537.36”|
|browser||JSON||A JSON object representing the browser which serviced the event. Its comprised of the properties: 'name', 'family', 'producer', 'producer_url', 'type', 'url', 'version'.|
|location||JSON||A JSON object representing the location where the event occurred. Its comprised of the properties: 'city', 'state', 'country'.|
Additionally, CLICK events have the following properties:
|url||string||The URL within the message that the recipient clicked.|
|referer||string||The URL of the webpage that linked to the URL clicked. Whether this is provided, and what its value is, is determined by the recipient's email client.|
And OPEN events may have the following property:
|duration||64-bit integer (milliseconds)||If provided and nonzero, the approximate number of milliseconds the user had opened the email.|
A recipient can also affect her communication preferences via the email message. By clicking on the subscription preferences link in the message, she can change her subscriptions, either subscribing or unsubscribing from various lists, triggering a STATUSCHANGE event. Note that a status change can be for any list(s), not just the one which is associated with the current email message.
An email message may also be flagged as spam by the recipient, resulting in a SPAMREPORT event. Note that this is independent of subscription status -- flagging a message as spam does not simply unsubscribe the recipient from the list in question. Rather, the subscription status is left unchanged, and a flag is set which indicates that recipient should never receive an email message from HubSpot. Once this has happened, you'll need manual intervention by HubSpot to unset the flag.
A STATUSCHANGE event has the following additional properties:
|source||string (enumeration)||The source of the subscription change. See below for the possible values.|
|requestedBy||string||The email address of the person who requested the change on behalf of the recipient. If not applicable, this property is omitted.|
|portalSubscriptionStatus||string (enumeration, 'SUBSCRIBED' or 'UNSUBSCRIBED')||The recipient's portal subscription status. (Note that if this is 'UNSUBSCRIBED', the property 'subscriptions' is not necessarily an empty array, nor are all subscriptions contained in it necessarily going to have their statuses set to 'UNSUBSCRIBED'.)|
|subscriptions||JSON||An array of JSON objects representing the status of subscriptions for the recipient. Each JSON subscription object is comprised of the properties: 'id', 'status'.|
|bounced||boolean (true, or omitted entirely)||A HubSpot employee explicitly initiated the status change to block messages to the recipient. (Note this usage has been deprecated in favor of dropping messages with a 'dropReason' of BLOCKED_ADDRESS.)|
|SOURCE_LIST_UNSUBSCRIBE||The recipient used a list-unsubscribe header.|
|SOURCE_RECIPIENT||The recipient used the subscription UI.|
|SOURCE_IMPORT||The customer imported the subscriptions into their portal.|
|SOURCE_HUBSPOT_CUSTOMER||The customer used the subscription UI.|
|SOURCE_SPAM_REPORT||A spam report generated by an automated system was received.|
|SOURCE_NON_DELIVERY_REPORT||A non-delivery report (typically a bounce) was received.|
|SOURCE_DIRECT_COMPLAINT||A direct complaint via firstname.lastname@example.org was received.|
|SOURCE_MTA_RECORD||Our delivery provider provided the change, during our normal synchronization with their system-of-record.|
|SOURCE_HUBSPOT||A HubSpot employee made the change.|
|SOURCE_MIGRATION||HubSpot migrated the subscriptions from a previous version of the product.|
|SOURCE_HUBSPOT_CLEANUP||HubSpot cleaned up the subscriptions.|
|SOURCE_KNOWN_SPAM_TRAP||This recipient address is a known spam trap, and should not receive emails.|
There is a 13th event type, which is unrelated to a specific email message. UNBOUNCE events occur when a particular email address is either automatically or manually unbounced by HubSpot. This has the effect of resetting the bounce status of the recipient, potentially allowing that recipient to receive emails from your portal.
|user||string||The email address of the user who submitted the unbounce request.|
Many events are related to other events that occurred either before or after it. We use EventIds, as described in the first section above, to build this reference chain.
Note that event references are relatively new, and older events may not have them populated.
As discussed previously, each email message has either a SENT or DROPPED event (or one of each) associated with it. This will be the first event generated for any given message. If a message generates a SENT event, all subsequently-generated events will reference that event via the property 'sentBy'.
This backward-reference can be useful to get more information on the parent SENT event, or to manually find all events associated with a given message.
Sometimes, a follow-on event occurs for a given message which signifies an earlier event should be completely ignored. This relationship is captured in a forward-reference in the property 'obsoletedBy'.
For instance, in the case where we generate both a SENT event and a subsequent DROPPED event, the SENT event is ultimately irrelevant, and is obsoleted by the DROPPED event. Accordingly, the SENT event will reference the DROPPED event via 'obsoletedBy'.
Certain events occur precisely because of some previous event, often for a different message. This relationship is captured in a backward-reference in the property 'causedBy'. It can be used to get additional details on why a particular event occurred from the event which caused it.
For example, a DROPPED event will occur when there was a previous BOUNCE event for the same recipient. In this case, the DROPPED event will have its 'dropReason' set to PREVIOUSLY_BOUNCED, and its 'causedBy' will reference that previous BOUNCE event.